|MANIKMAYA OR BETARA GURU|
At first puppets made of buffalo leather R. Fractures during the reigns in 1437 saka. At that time the puppet is still intangible such as painting the human form as what is contained in the temple reliefs Upgrading. Therefore it has something to do with Islamic religious law, which is contrary to the Personality ', while the king and the people loved the puppets, the puppet of the mayor to change the shape of the painting "metok" (face to face) to be skewed. While parts of the body especially the hands of a length. At first, before taking a picture carved in the eyes, ears, etc., just simply drawn, then painted with a sculpture by the Mayor. That's where if people want to know that how smart the Wali.
Research by experts Kejawen, puppet shows Purwa mean it is closely related to the pattern of early Muslims in Java. Allegations that the player shows as separate puppets had been there since ancient times and then filled with mystical Islam is not true. People know that the news about the Guardians Java propagator of Islam, that is what gives them an important role in the puppet show on the purpose of realization of this right now ... (Dr.PH Piqued, Javaanse Voksvertoningen, page 56).
Commencement of puppets carved striped gambier (fine lines in the hair for example) that in the year 1477 Saka behest R. Trenggana who holds Kanjeng Emperor Akbar Sah Ngalam III in Demak.
Later in the reign of Sultan Hadiwijaya who in his youth known as Joko Tingkir Pajang king, puppets carved Gayaman (regardless), but the hands still connected primarily to the body. That is not separated from the body which are connected with a rope like what we see in puppet form now.
As for the magnified by his puppet monkey (Vanara) is Sunan Giri. While that adds Ricikan (horses, elephants, soldiers Rampak, etc.) is Sunan Bonang.
Raden Patah create Kayon (mountains) that is attached in the middle of the arena screen when the show early, middle, and end the show. (Sri Mulyono, Wayang: the origins, philosophy and future, p. 84-89)
Puppets carved in a more subtle again is in the reign of Senopati Ing Ngalogo Sayidin Panotogomo Mataram in 1541. Starting separation of body hand puppet (which was then tied to the body in order to facilitate the movement of the hand) is also in the days of Mataram.
Began holding a giant Cakil in 1552 Saka and this is indicated by Candra sengkala Memet (images that can show the meaning of the year) that "The Hand Attorney Tinata creature" in 1552 Saka.
Festival Widyaka own name as the first puppeteer who played Shadow Puppet. Sunan Kalijaga also the same, in the year 1443 Saka, Gemi dadi Gucining guard = 1521 AD. (Dr. TH Piqued, Javaanse Volksvertoningen, page 56.)
According to the book “Kaweruh asalipun ringgit" by RM Mangkudimejo Yogyakarta palace courtiers, puppet Beber was everything technique improved by Demak Sangkala was in the year 1437. The principle of technical drawings or flock lined up on the sheet rolling, which will be displayed if, then "dibeber" (stretched), the replacement of the principle techniques tafsili images, one by one, meant to be more "alive" when displayed. (Ki Musa Al-Machfoed, link ages Religion and Culture, page 21).
Although the anatomical shape of the image aesthetis puppet was wrong and ugly, but few people actually do not want to brave such Gatutkaca, handsome like Arjuna, like Wara Sumbadra beautiful, and agile as Heroine of the puppet characters Purwa it. Though shape and form parts of the puppet characters are not good at all in fact, the quotes can be said to be beautiful and not proportional.
I see the puppet as an important lesson for people who like to increase in the science of nature.
Entertaining the heart, refresh yourself. You see it all disappear and ki puppeteer who will stay fixed.
Book of the Ramayana written by Valmiki (Hindu). The book is older than the Mahabharata. Hindus in the country, including the book of Ramayana among those who embraced Vishnu. Being a religious book Mahabharata Shiva. In Java, Old Javanese Ramayana books and poetical. Dutch scholars who studied there we are, like Dr.WF Stutterhein (Die Rama Legenden) and others.
The Book of Old Javanese Ramayana is roughly at the time of king Diyah bertahtanya Balitung. A famous king who controlled Central Java and East Java, that reigned in Mataram circa 820-832 Saka. The book tells Old Javanese Ramayana speaks of King Rama, as the book's creation Sanskrit Valmiki Ramayana. However no difference. In Sanskrit Ramayana "Sita" Rama's wife, after the country returned to Ayodhya and parted with Rama. Being in the book of Old Javanese Ramayana, Sita Rama back together again soon. (Prof. RM Poerbotjaraka, Jawi Library, page 9).
Besides Old Javanese Ramayana when compared with Valmiki Ramayana, including the very short and concise, not protracted. It is known that the parent Old Javanese Ramayana it is not in Valmiki Ramayana. (Prof. RM Poerbotjaraka, Jawi Library, page 9).
Which tells the story of the love between Rama and Sinta has been demonstrated in a massive stage at Prambanan and is an annual event received considerable attention from the public and tourists.
The book of Mahabharata, originally existed in India bouquet of sage Wiyasa (Abiyasa), essentially tells the journey of life the Pandavas and the Kauravas; who is now in the land of Java would really be a story Purwa, but has undergone many changes.
Book Mabarata classified Siwaisme book consisting of 18 Parwa (part), of the eighteen new parwa 9 are found in Indonesia. Eighteen parwa that the order is thus:
1. Adi parwa *)
2. Sabha parwa *)
3. Wana (+ adults) parwa
4. Virata parwa *)
5. Ud-yoga parwa *)
6. Bhisma parwa *)
7. Drones parwa
8. Karna parrwa
9. Salya parwa 10. Ghada parwa
11. Ashwatthama parwa
12. Palapa Stri parwa
13. Santika parwa
14. Asvamedha parwa
15. Asramavasana parwa *)
16. Mausala parrwa *)
17. Prasihanika parwa *)
18. Swargarohana parwa *)
The 9 parwa in Indonesia is parwa-parwa number *) 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 15, 16, 17, 18. While a lot of the source stories perwayangan in Indonesia is the first parwa, namely Adi parrwa. About Adi parwa creation of Indonesia, Prof. Poerbotjaraka described as follows:
"This book is the same arrangement with Uttarakanda book, also named True Dharmawangsa King (King in Java). In the book of the Mahabharata is the first part. While the details of the order of the story a lot. Clearly, a story of adolescence puppet play, stories about the birth story, and others. The story plays Goddess Lara Amis, Bale sigala-gala, the death of Arimba, Jiwata Bird and others, were excerpts from the book Adi parwa. Story "Ngebur Segoro Peresan", which causes the release of "water of life", also the beginning of a solar eclipse or eclipse of the moon-shaped head eaten by a giant, also present in this book. This book was printed in Latin letters. Compared with the Sanskrit Mahabharata by Prof.Dr. H. Kern accompanied by several passages. Garuda stories translated into Dutch by Dr. Joynboll ". (Prof. Dr. RM Ng. Poerbotjaraka, Jawi Library, page 9).
R. Harjawiraga describes the origins of puppets and puppet what exactly the purpose it was created to write the story thus:
Purwa is a symbol of human life in this world. In the principal means, that so early as the father of all puppets that mother is "Hyang Manik Maya" (Betara Teacher) and "Ismaya Hyang" (Semar) countryman Gods. Manikmaya and Ismaya son "Single Hyang" (not diujudkan as a puppet). Both men were initially in the form of light and at the same occurrence. Manikmaya shining, while the luminous Ismaya blackish. Both the light where the older snatch. Then "Single Hyang" said, that the light-dark-hitamanlah older. But the soul can not be predicted as a god and was named "Ismaya", is of a man and decreed that the world remained in a bloody god parenting derivative Pandavas. So diturunkanlah to the world he named "Semar" which seems to be a bad man.
The light that shines is named "Manikmaya", remained in "Suralaya" (royal god). Manikmaya feel proud, because it has no defects and very powerful. But such thoughts Manikmaya the cause for her disability also got on him later.
Both of these events is a symbol or a symbol. Ismaya human body as a symbol of this rough and Manikmaya as a symbol of human spiritual refinement. Jiw rough (Semar) always keep the five Pandavas who ujudnya form of "five senses" or fifth feelings of the human body. Actually, anyone who thinks the intent of this story, always keeping the safety of our five senses:
The five Pandavas as a symbol of five human senses
1. Nose taste sense
2. Ear auditory sense
3. Eyesight sense
4. Mouth taste sense
5. Tactile bodies sense
Yudistira ( Samiaji )
Werkudara ( Bima )
Arjuna ( Janaka )
The five Pandavas or the human senses is not to take the wrong path such as nasal do not just love and fun in the all-time smell the fragrant and fragrant, the ears do not just listen to the melodious voice-melodious course, the eyes do not just look at the sheer beauty of the sometimes misleading, and so on. Clearly, any goods on the fifth sense, it should not be pointless undifferentiated good and evil, because everything that happens because the origin of the deeds themselves. Therefore, wherever possible the way it is returned to the consideration of calmness and clarity of heart.
This is the task of Semar to ensure the welfare and safety of the Pandavas that they may avoid hostilities with the Kauravas, is the passion of anger. But Betara Guru (inner sense) is always tempting and easy to disturb the sense of soul that leads to the error, the Pandavas and the Kauravas will not cease fighting continued until the last war, is war Baratayuda, and the glorious and got Pandawalah the victory.
Analyses of the Guru has been misunderstood. People assumed that the most powerful Guru of everything. (R. Harjawiguna, Purwa Puppet History, page 4, Hall Book, PN. Balai Pustaka Jakarta 1952).
Remember, Guru is weak, with evidence of any disability they have. If he is a very powerful surely no flaw in him. Guru indeed infinite in power, but with wisdom and supernatural powers Semar, Guru can be addressed and controlled by Semar. (Ibid, History of Wayang Purwa)
( SOURCE: DRS. EFFENDI ZARKASIH, ISLAMIC ELEMENTS IN THE PUPPET -ALFA POWER JAKARTA ).
|HYANG ISMAYA OR SEMAR|
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Yudistira ( Samiaji )
Werkudara ( Bima )
Arjuna ( Janaka )